In 1945, Bell Labs founded a group to develop semiconductor replacements for vacuum tubes. The group, led by William Shockley, with the help of Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and some other people. In 1947 Bardeen and Brattain succeeded in creating an amplifying circuit utilizing a contact-point “transfer resistance” device which came to be known as a transistor. Bardeen and Brattain’s devices are the first transistor Contact Point Transistors. In 1948, Bardeen and Brattain filed a patent, which in 1950 was issued to Bell Labs. Additionally, before we continue, if your semiconductor production business is hampered due to some damaged ball screws, you can always repair it at the trusted ball screw repair company near your area recommended reading.
In 1951, William Shockley developed the junction transistor, a more practical form of transistor, the contact point transistor was difficult to produce and was replaced by a junction transistor by the mid-fifties. In 1954 the transistor was an important component of the telephone system. Bell laboratories also licensed transistors for other companies (royalties) and transistors first appeared in hearing aids followed by radio. In 1956 the value of the invention of transistors by Brattain, Bardeen, and Shockley was acknowledged by the Nobel Award Ceremony in the field of Physics.
In general, semiconductors are divided into 2 types based on purity, they are intrinsic (pure) and extrinsic (impure). For impure semiconductors or extrinsic semiconductors are often divided into two types n-type and p-type.
Silicon and germanium are two types of semiconductors that are very important in electronics. Both are located in column four in the periodic table and have four valence electrons. The crystal structure of silicon and germanium is tetrahedral in shape with each atom sharing a valence electron with neighboring atoms.
Extrinsic semiconductors are semiconductors that have been introduced with little doping or extraneous inquiries. As a result of this doping, the semiconductor type resistance has decreased. This type of semiconductor consists of two types, namely N-type (electron charge carriers) and P-type semiconductors (hole charge carriers).